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With the aid of philosophical study, it becomes aware of the correspondence between itself and its great counterpart.
Having attained this insight, the microcosm realizes that just as the universe employs reason to govern the planets, it too should employ reason to govern its emotions.
The structure of each is tripartite and hierarchical.
The class of philosopher-kings corresponds to reason (located in the head), the warrior class corresponds to irascibility (located in the breast), and the worker class corresponds to appetite (located in the belly).
If the city or the soul is to function in harmony, the lower parts must obey the higher, and the higher must guide prudently.
This organic notion of the body politic exerted an extraordinary appeal. Paul of Tarsus used it to describe the church as the mystical body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12, et al.), and medieval thinkers such as John of Salisbury (c. 1342), in the Defensor pacis, presented their political ideas within its framework.
Kosmos at this time meant "order" in a general sense and implied a harmonious, and therefore beautiful, arrangement of parts in any organic system; hence it also referred to order in human societies, reflected in good government.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to reconstruct their thinking in much detail, and clear references attributing the doctrine to Democritus (c. 507 b.c.e.) are quite late, dating to the fifth and ninth centuries c.e., respectively.The rest of the human body exists merely to serve the head.Unlike the macrocosm, which contains all things and is immortal, and hence has no need of sensory or digestive organs or limbs for locomotion, the microcosm is only a part of the whole, and its existence is threatened by the surrounding elements, so that it needs such additional parts to perceive and avoid danger and to replenish the nutrients it loses.The earliest kabbalistic text, the Book of Creation (Sefer Yezirah; perhaps composed between the third and sixth centuries c.e.), observed correspondences between the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, features of the physical world, and the human body.The thirteenth-century Book of Splendor (Zohar ) taught that the first emanation in the creative process is the cosmic man (Adam Kadmon), through whom the rest of creation emanates, so that terrestrial human beings are modeled on an ideal form that provides the pattern for all of creation.